Factsheets

Each type of fungus can typically cause a spectrum of conditions depending on the patient’s immune status and the part of the body affected. For a detailed explanation of the different types of aspergillosis please see the Aspergillus & Aspergillosis website.

Many disease-causing fungi live in rotting matter in the environment (especially leaves/guano), or as a harmless part of the body’s natural flora and only cause infections in immunocompromised patients or when traumatically implanted (i.e. they are opportunistic pathogens).

 

 

Fungal infections & allergies

Candidaemia, Candida peritonitis and invasive candidiasis
Cryptococcal meningitis
Pneumocystis pneumonia
Invasive aspergillosis and mucormycosis
Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis
Disseminated histoplasmosis
Acute pulmonary histoplasmosis
Sinuses: fungal ball and chronic granulomatous FRS
Eyes: keratitis and endophthalmitis
Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA)
Chronic cavitary pulmonary histoplasmosis
Endemic mycoses: Coccidioidomycosis, Paracoccidioidomycosis and Blastomycosis
Mycetoma
Oral
Oesophageal
Vaginitis
Balanitis (penis)
Occupational lung disease
ABPA
SAFS and fungal asthma
Thunderstorm asthma
Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis
Tinea
Onychomycosis (nails)
Otomycosis (ears)
Implantation mycoses

Disease-causing fungi

Over 600 species of fungi have been linked with disease, but fewer than 30 species cause over 99% of infections. While many species of fungi are able to cause disease in humans, few of them are true pathogens – most are opportunistic and grow only rarely, in severely immunocompromised patients. Implantation mycoses can be caused by many different species of fungi.

Some species can exist in either a yeast or a filamentous form and are therefore called ‘dimorphic’ (e.g. Histoplasma). Some have atypical forms, for example Pneumocystis can form so-called cysts and trophozoites (named after parasite life forms). For additional species or details please visit Aspergillus&AspergillosisMycology online or Doctor Fungus. For more information about emerging fungal pathogens please see Friedman & Schwartz (2019).

Candida
Candida auris
Cryptococcus

Rhodotorula
Malassezia
Talaromyces
Blastomyces
Coccidioides
Histoplasma
Paracoccidioides
Pneumocystis
Aspergillus
Fusarium
Trichophyton
Alternaria
Cladosphialophora
Apophysomyces

Fonsecaea
 
 

Characteristic appearance of key fungi

Scroll to top